Two states do not appoint juries in death penalty cases. In Nebraska, the verdict is decided by a panel of three judges, who must unanimously decide on death, and the defendant is sentenced to life in prison if one of the judges objects.  Montana is the only state where only the trial judge decides the verdict.  The only state that does not require a unanimous jury decision is Alabama. At least 10 jurors must agree, and a new trial will be held if the jury is deadlocked.  The first state to abolish the death penalty was Wisconsin, which made the death penalty illegal in 1853. More recently, Washington, Delaware, Maryland, Connecticut and Illinois have abolished the death penalty. STATE DEATH PENALTY LITIGATION The application of the death penalty by the State is complex. Each State that practices the death penalty has different laws regarding its methods and permissible crimes. Typically, it involves four critical stages: condemnation, direct review, collateral review of the state, and federal habeas corpus. Below is an organizational chart.
On July 2, 1976, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled Gregg v. Georgia and upheld 7:2 a Georgian trial in which the capital crimes trial was divided into guilt-innocence and sentencing phases. At the first trial, the jury decides on the guilt of the accused; If the accused is innocent or has not been convicted of first-degree murder, the death penalty is not imposed. At the second hearing, jurors decide whether there are certain aggravating factors required by law, whether there are mitigating factors, and, in many jurisdictions, assess aggravating and mitigating factors to determine the final sentence – either the death penalty or life imprisonment, with or without parole. On the same day, in Woodson v. North Carolina and Roberts v. In Louisiana, the court struck down laws 5:4 requiring a mandatory death penalty. The death penalty is one of the most controversial issues in the world and a discussion that is constantly debated.
From an ethical point of view, the death penalty or the death penalty is wrong. One could look at the circumstances from a moral point of view, but whether someone considers the death penalty morally acceptable depends on their moral code. Politicians are often involved in conversations about the death penalty, which makes the discussion even more complicated. According to the Death Penalty Information Centre, more than 70 per cent of the world`s countries have abolished the death penalty in law or practice. On August 2, 2016, the Delaware Supreme Court ruled that the state`s trials were unconstitutional and struck down Delaware`s death penalty law. On August 15, 2016, the Delaware Attorney General`s Office announced that it would review the decision in the U.S. Supreme Court. In December 2016, the court ruled that its decision applied to the 13 state prisoners still on death row. First, Roper v. Simmons, that the death penalty for juveniles was abolished because the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the execution of minors violated the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments, which deal with cruel and unusual punishment. Before juvenile sentencing was abolished in 2005, any minor 16 or older could be sentenced to death in some states, including Scott Hain, who was executed in Oklahoma in 2003 for burning two people in a robbery at age 17.
 Since 2005, there have been no executions or discussions of juvenile executions in the United States. Note that Colorado and New Hampshire have prospectively abolished the death penalty. In Colorado, the governor commuted the sentences of death row inmates, but defendants whose cases were pending at the time of abolition are still entitled to execution and the implementing law is still in effect. In New Hampshire, one person is still on death row. Since Furman, 11 states have held referendums on the death penalty through the initiative and referendum process. All of them led to a vote on reinstatement, rejecting its abolition, extending its scope, determining in the state`s constitution that it is not unconstitutional, or speeding up the appeal process in capital cases.  Only those convicted of capital crimes can be sentenced to death. Crimes that fall into this category include murder, espionage, war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide and treason. The data show that the use of the death penalty is strongly influenced by racial prejudice.  In addition, some opponents argue that it is applied arbitrarily by a criminal justice system that has been found to be biased by the systemic influence of socio-economic, geographic, and gender-specific factors.
 Another argument in the death penalty debate is cost.   The U.S. Supreme Court has restricted the use of the death penalty in several cases, making it more difficult to impose the death penalty widely. For example, mentally disabled offenders (Atkins v. Virginia) and juvenile offenders (Roper v. Simmons) cannot expect the death penalty to be a possible punishment (starting in 2021). A 2010 poll by Lake Research Partners found that 61 percent of voters would choose a sentence other than the death penalty for murder.  When interviewees are given a choice between the death penalty and life imprisonment without parole for those convicted of capital crimes, support for execution has traditionally been significantly lower than for investigations that only asked whether or not a person supported the death penalty. In the 2019 Gallup poll, support for sentencing to life in prison without parole exceeded that of the death penalty by 60% to 36%.  Does California have the death penalty? The death penalty is a legal penalty in the state of California. Between 1778 and 1972, California carried out 709 executions. In 1972, the California Supreme Court struck down the state`s death penalty law in People vs.
Anderson, who was reinstated by voters a few months later. In 2019, Governor Gavin Newsom announced a moratorium on executions in California, affecting 737 inmates on the nation`s longest death row.