Non Legal Sunnah

The legal Sunnah (Sunna tashri`iyya) consists of the exemplary conduct of the Prophet, whether by deed, word or tacit approval. The other division of the Sunnah that will concern us here is its division into legal and non-juridical Sunnah. According to historians (especially Daniel W. Brown), the classical Islamic definition of the Sunnah as Muhammad`s customs and practices was (only) not the original definition. [ref. needed] The main collections of the Sunnah of Shia Islam were written by three authors known as the “Three Muhammads”[122] and they are: When Muslims are faced with ambiguous legal questions that are not directly answered by divine texts, they should seek clarification and advice from trusted fiqh scholars. A qualified scholar who makes a legal judgment (fatwa) in a particular case is called a mufti. This variety of uses is at the origin of the different schools of fiqh (Madha`hib) in Islam: the Hanafi, Shafi`i, Maliki and Hanbali doctrines, as well as others lost in history. These schools all agree on the basic precepts of Sharia, but they disagree on details to which divine revelation does not clearly respond. Therefore, with the Qur`an, the Sunnah was revealed. Modern Sunni scholars have studied both the Sira and the Hadith to justify changes in jurisprudence (fiqh). [ref.

needed] Hense, imitating Muhammad, helps Muslims to know God and to be loved by Him. [16] Shia Islam does not use the Kutub al-Sittah (six major collections of hadiths) followed by Sunni Islam, so the Sunnah of Shia Islam and the Sunnah of Sunni Islam refer to different collections of canonical religious literature. In Islam, Sunnah, also spelled Sunnah (Arabic: سنة), are the traditions and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who are a model for Muslims. Such activities are not of primary importance to the prophetic mission and therefore do not constitute legal norms. According to the majority of ulema, the Prophet`s preferences in these areas, such as his favorite colors, or the fact that he slept on his right side, etc., only indicate eligibility (ibahah). [29. Shaltut, Al-Islam, pp. 5-12.] In the 19th century, the “social and political unrest” that began with the decline of the Mughal Empire prompted some Muslims to seek a more humanized figure of Muhammad. The miraculous prophetic figure “larger than life” has been less emphasized in favor of a “practical model for the restoration of the Muslim community,” a virtuous and progressive social reformer. Nasserist Egypt, for example, celebrated the “imam of socialism” rather than the cosmic “perfect man.” [66] Ghulam Ahmed Perwez (1903-1985) argued against the idea of the Sunnah as divine revelation and for the idea that Muhammad`s mission was simply to transmit the Qur`an. He quoted the Qur`anic verse: “The Messenger has no other duty than to proclaim [the message]” (Q.5:99)[67] and pointed to several other verses in which God corrects something Muhammad did or said (8:67), (9:43), (66:1), demonstrating Muhammad`s lack of supernatural knowledge.

[68] Abū ʿAbdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī (150-204 AH), known as al-Shafi`i, argued against flexible Sunnah and the use of precedents from multiple sources,[41][2] emphasizing the ultimate authority of a hadith of Muhammad, so that even the Qur`an “in the light of traditions (i.e. Hadith) and not the other way around. [42] [43] While the Sunnah was often referred to as “secondary,”[44][45] it was also said that the hadith “governs and interprets the Qur`an.” [46] [Note 2] Al-Shafi`i categorically “maintained” that the Sunnah was “equal to the Qur`an” (according to scholar Daniel Brown) two divine revelations. Yusuf argued that “practice is best transmitted through practice,”[91] and a more reliable way to establish the Sunnah as a hadith. He also believed that the transmission of the practice from generation to generation, regardless of the hadith, explained why early law schools did not distinguish between the Sunnah of the caliphate and the Sunnah of the Prophet. [92] According to Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, another modernist, this transmission through the continuous practice of the Muslim community (which also indicates consensus, ijma) resembled how the Qur`an was “received by the ummah” (Muslim community) by the consensus of Muhammad`s companions and by their constant recitation.